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The National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress has put out its annual playlist for preservation, and to quote the late, great Curtis Mayfield, “it’s a set goin’ strong, with a lotta things goin’ on.”
Everlasting songs including Neil Diamond’s “Sweet Caroline,” Sam & Dave’s “Soul Man,” Ritchie Valens’ “La Bamba,” Earth, Wind & Fire’s “September” and Cab Calloway’s “Minnie the Moocher” have been selected, as have albums from Jay-Z (The Blueprint), Cyndi Lauper (She’s So Unusual) and Mayfield (Super Fly).
Also on the list announced Wednesday: A 1952 radio episode of Gunsmoke; the original Broadway cast recording of Hair; a 1961 album of history from satirist Stan Freberg; Nina Simone’s civil rights era “Mississippi Goddam”; and an extemporaneous speech by Robert F. Kennedy made hours after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Each year, the Librarian of Congress selects 25 “aural treasures that are worthy of preservation because of their cultural, historic and aesthetic importance to the nation’s recorded sound heritage.” Sam Moore and David Prater’s “Soul Man,” first recorded by the duo in 1967, certainly qualifies.
“I had no idea it would become an anthem and such a significant part of American culture,” Moore said in a statement. “I’ve learned that when I first sang ‘Soul Man,’ it was the first time that those words had ever been used together in the English language, to which I can only say, ‘Wow!'”
The latest batch of picks spans a century — 1901 to 2001 — and brings the number of titles in the registry to 525.
“The National Recording Registry honors the music that enriches our souls, the voices that tell our stories and the sounds that mirror our lives,” Librarian of Congress’ Carla Hayden said. “The influence of recorded sound over its nearly 160-year history has been profound, and technology has increased its reach and significance exponentially. The Library of Congress and its many collaborators are working to preserve these sounds and moments in time, which reflect our past, present and future.”
Chicano culture is reflected in the selection of Valens’ groundbreaking “La Bamba,” recorded in 1958. “As a young boy growing up in East Los Angeles, I was curious and ultimately impressed by a rock song sung in Spanish — that song was ‘La Bamba’ by Ritchie Valens,” Louie Pérez of Los Lobos said. “It continues to be a hallmark in American music and an influence on all Latino music that followed.”
As Lauper recorded her 1983 debut album, which featured the feminist anthem “Girls Just Want to Have Fun,” she said she was “really determined to make a cohesive collection of songs and really determined to make sure all types of women were represented in the ‘Girls’ video.
“I had this very strong vision of how I wanted to put the music together. If this is going to be my thing, and if this is the only time I ever get to open my mouth and sing, I want it to be great.”
Here’s a chronological list of the selected recordings, with descriptions provided by the Library of Congress:
Yiddish Cylinders From the Standard Phonograph Co. of New York and the Thomas Lambert Co. (c. 1901-05)
These cylinders originally produced by Standard Phonograph are believed to be the earliest recordings of Yiddish songs. Eventually released by the Thomas Lambert Co. of Chicago, the cylinders (some manufactured in unusually vibrant colors) also represent the first releases by an ethnically owned and focused record company, a risky venture at a time when a U.S.-based audience for foreign-language music had yet to be established. These surviving 20 cylinders, out of the 48 originally produced, provide insight into the Yiddish-speaking community of the era and into the difficult assimilation of Jewish immigrants arriving to America at the turn of the century.
“Memphis Blues” (single), Victor Military Band (1914)
Though he would eventually be acclaimed as “The Father of the Blues,” W.C. Handy was only a moderately successful bandleader in 1912 when he published “The Memphis Blues” in sheet music form. It caught on quickly and was soon being performed by bands around the country, introducing Handy’s style of 12-bar blues to a wide audience. With the help of bandleader James Reese Europe, the dancers Vernon and Irene Castle used it to promote their version of the emerging popular dance, the foxtrot. No recording of the music was made, however, until July 15, 1914, when the Victor Military Band cut its hit version, helping to pave the way for the jazz and blues craze that would sweep the country within a few years. “Memphis Blues” was soon standard repertoire and was rerecorded as late as 1942 by swing era bandleader Harry James.
Melville Jacobs Collection of Native Americans of the American Northwest (1929-39)
Jacobs (1902-71) was an anthropologist and linguist whose research and field recordings have made a crucial contribution to the preservation of Native American languages of the northwestern region of the country, including Athabascan, Chinook, Coos, Kalapuya, Lummi, Lushootseed, Sahaptin, Tillamook, Tlingit and Tsimshian. In all, Jacobs made nearly 170 recordings (on both cylinder and disc), in 23 languages, documenting some of the final speakers of many of these dialects. However, since their creation, Jacobs’ recordings have not languished in the archives as examples of forgotten traditions. Various tribes have taken a keen interest in this documentation of language, stories, music and culture. In the case of the Miluk language, the recordings have even been utilized in classes attempting to revive this vanishing tongue.
“Minnie the Moocher” (single), Cab Calloway (1931)
By 1931, songs about dens of iniquity were nothing new, but one so deliberate, not to mention as entertaining, as Calloway’s “Minnie the Moocher” was indeed remarkable. “Minnie” bears more than a slight resemblance to a 1920s ditty titled “Willie the Weeper,” a song about a “chimney sweeper” with a drug addiction. In the song, Minnie is characterized as “rough and tough,” big-hearted and someone who associated with types as disparate as “Cokey Joe” and the King of Sweden. An equally unlikely pairing was the wild abandon, yet perfect control, with which Calloway sang this minor-keyed fable. He sang “Minnie” throughout his long career, including the rousing version he performed in The Blues Brothers (1980) as an agile septuagenarian.
Bach Six Cello Suites (album), Pablo Casals (c. 1939)
Casals’ role in rediscovering the Bach cello suites has tended to be somewhat overstated, in a way that both exaggerates and denigrates his real accomplishment. The cello suites were fairly well-known among cellists and composers during the 19th century. Where Casals differed from his predecessors was in understanding and cultivating the musical nature of the suites themselves. He seemed to grasp intuitively the intense depth of the music and gives it the study that it demanded. Although his approach to the music appears quite romantic, his realization of the value of the music for concert performance (in contradiction to hundreds of years of tradition among cellists) was a profoundly modern gesture and one that helped change the reputation of the cello and modified not just cello performance but the nature of string playing generally.
“There is a prophetic aspect to Pablo Casals’ work — he revealed his recording of the six Bach Cello Suites, and they instantly became our bible and continue to offer revelations to cellists even to this day,” Ébène Quartet cellist Raphaël Merlin said. “At the same time, he also made a practical case for these works as an ideal way for a musician to exercise his or her mind, cultivate healthy playing technique, study counterpoint and more. However you look at them, his recording of the suites still sounds like the opening of a new era.”
“They Look Like Men of War” (single), Deep River Boys (1941)
When they recorded this on a 1941 Lang-Worth transcription disc, made for radio stations but not sold in stores, the Deep River Boys were singing an old hymn with a rich history at their all-black college, Hampton Institute in Virginia, where they had met as students in 1933. The song had been part of the musical life at Hampton since the school’s founding in the late 1860s and was much beloved by the school’s first president, Gen. Samuel C. Armstrong, who first heard it sung by black troops under his command during the Civil War. Armstrong said, “Late one evening I was startled by a magnificent chorus from nearly a thousand black Union soldiers, which called me from my tent to listen [to] its most inspiring strains, and I caught the words of what I called the Negro Battle Hymn — ‘They Look Like Men of War.'”
Gunsmoke episode “The Cabin” (Dec. 27, 1952)
With the arrival of television, radio drama was on the endangered list by early 1952, but CBS president William Paley was still eager to take a chance with an idea for a hardboiled, adult-oriented western he’d been nursing for several years. Writers John Meston and Norman MacDonald gave him Gunsmoke, a weekly half-hour featuring Marshal Matt Dillon, a dedicated lawman who often found himself embroiled in complex moral dilemmas in the violent frontier town of Dodge City, where he fought stagecoach robbers and cattle rustlers but also dealt with domestic violence and discrimination. Gunsmoke was a hit, probably the last new radio drama to make an impact. It ran for nine seasons on the radio, and during that time the legendary Gunsmoke TV series was launched. In this episode, Dillon, played by William Conrad, near death in a blizzard, seeks shelter in a cabin where two psychotic outlaws are holding a young woman hostage. Like many Gunsmoke radio episodes, this one was adapted for television.
Ruth Draper: Complete Recorded Monologues 1954-56
Draper (1884-1956) was an actress who specialized in solo performances featuring numerous characters and monologues of her own creation. Some were humorous, such as her many sketches of society women, like “The Italian Lesson,” a 28-minute tour de force of conversation, interruptions and distractions, and very little Italian. Others were more serious, like “A Scottish Immigrant at Ellis Island” and “In a Railway Station on the Western Plains.” She presented them successfully on stages in Europe and America for decades, starting in the 1910s. She was a great favorite of actors, playwrights and directors. Her early fans included the novelist Henry James, and she was an acknowledged influence on Lily Tomlin, Mike Nichols, Julie Harris, Uta Hagen, David Mamet, Julia Sweeney and many others. She resisted recording offers until late in her life, when she recorded a series of her monologues in 1954. A lone album with three monologues was released by RCA Victor in 1956, though her work was further anthologized on five albums by the Spoken Arts label. Recent digital versions have included previously unreleased monologues.
“La Bamba” (single), Ritchie Valens (1958)
Valens was born Richard Valenzuela in Los Angeles in 1941. English was his first language and, though he never mastered Spanish, he learned Spanish songs from his Mexican-American family, including “La Bamba,” a song from Vera Cruz that was a favorite dance piece at weddings. Valens’ amplified guitar and power chords were a long way from the acoustic string band sounds of Mexico, but he successfully transposed the feeling and rhythm of the song to the back beat of early rock ‘n’ roll. It was released as the B-side of his second single, “Donna,” in late 1958 and had become a hit on its own when he died Feb. 3, 1959, in a plane crash that also took the lives of Buddy Holly and J.P. Richardson (“The Big Bopper”). Valens’ success brought a new sound to the mainstream and inspired generations of Chicano musicians.
“Long Black Veil” (single), Lefty Frizzell (1959)
Frizzell was a hard-drinking, hard-living country singer who helped broaden the appeal of honky-tonk music with a string of hits in the early 1950s. In songs such as “If You’ve Got the Money,” Frizzell smoothed out the vocals of honky-tonk while still retaining their vitality. His hits had dried up by the late ’50s, so Frizzell decided to work with a different music publishing company, Cedarwood. In spring 1959, on the same day Danny Dill and Marijohn Wilkin finished “Long Black Veil,” Wilkin pitched it to Frizzell and legendary producer Don Law. Frizzell wanted to record it immediately even though it was a departure from his style, more folk song than honky-tonk. In “Long Black Veil,” a ghostly saga song, Frizzell portrays a dead man who tells the tragic secret of his execution and about the woman who mourns for him. The recording session included the composer (Wilkin) on piano and the plaintive steel guitar of Don Helms echoing the wails in the lyrics. “Long Black Veil” was not only Frizzell’s biggest hit in years, it became one of his signature songs and a genre-crossing classic, covered by Johnny Cash, Sammi Smith, The Kingston Trio, Joan Baez, The Band, The Chieftains and dozens more.
Stan Freberg Presents the United States of America, Vol. 1: The Early Years (album), Stan Freberg (1961)
“Why does history have to be so incredibly boring?” Freberg asked. The subject he failed in high school became a most enviable satirical target in this album. A uniquely American collection of off-the-wall historical anachronisms, clever puns and wacky tunes, Freberg was first a skilled radio hit-maker, but also an actor and real-life “Mad Man,” credited with bringing polished humor to the world of advertising. Whether he was selling prunes (“Today the pits, tomorrow the wrinkles”) or skewering American history, Freberg’s limber vocal impressions were aided and abetted by notable actors such as Paul Frees, June Foray, Jesse White and others. “United States of America, Vol. 1” tweaks the early years from Christopher Columbus (singing petulantly of a “Round, Round World”) through George Washington’s victory at Yorktown (a triumph due to sound-effect trickery). In Freberg’s universe, absurdity abounds: Betsy Ross does alterations, Washington bargains for boats on the Delaware, and a hep-cat Revolutionary War drummer has some complaints about the Yankee Doodle fife man (“I got a bandage around my ears, but it doesn’t help much.”). Slyly subversive, this album has an enduring comic effect that presages Mel Brooks’ History of the World: Part 1 (1981) and groups like Firesign Theatre and National Lampoon. It nearly became a David Merrick musical, but instead, 35 years later, Freberg released Volume 2, using many of the same cast.
GO (album), Dexter Gordon (1962)
Legendary jazz saxophonist Gordon was tall and elegant. Nicknamed “Long Tall Dexter,” he had been active in the 1940s, but due to drug addiction and incarceration, he practically disappeared in the ’50s. In August 1961, he was finally clean and free. GO was not merely Gordon’s return to form, but a brilliant display of his hard-won maturity. His tenor sax solos are often playful, even mischievous, sprinkled with quotes from music as diverse as “Take Me Out to the Ball Game” in “Three O’Clock in the Morning” or “El Jarabe Tapatio” (“Mexican Hat Dance”) in “Love for Sale.” On the other hand, Gordon is known for his sensuous ballads, such as his tender treatment of “I Guess I’ll Hang My Tears Out to Dry.” Lester Young was one of Gordon’s main influences, and “Cheese Cake” is inspired by “Tickle Toe,” composed by Young and recorded by Count Basie and his Orchestra in 1940 with Young playing tenor. All six tracks were recorded Aug. 27, 1961, and feature Blue Note regulars pianist Sonny Clark, bassist Butch Warren and drummer Billy Higgins, a trio that Gordon called a perfect rhythm section. Gordon is quoted as saying that GO is his favorite album.
War Requiem (album), Benjamin Britten (1963)
Britten’s LP was commissioned for the 1962 consecration of the new Coventry Cathedral after the original 14th-century building was destroyed during World War II. The ambitious work combined text and elements from the traditional Latin Mass for the Dead with nine poems written by Wilfred Owen, a World War I soldier who died seven days before the Armistice. The Decca label had intended to record the War Requiem premiere at Coventry Cathedral, but there were numerous issues with the production that instead led producer John Culshaw to consider a studio recording under more ideal conditions. Britten himself didn’t regard any of his recordings as definitive, but because of having his choice of singers, conducting the work himself and having great recording quality — even by Decca standards — it has been the benchmark for every other recording or performance of War Requiem. The recording sales exceeded all expectations, in Europe and globally. Decca then had the confidence to record his operas, and Britten’s reputation as a great composer was fully acknowledged.
“Mississippi Goddam” (single), Nina Simone (1964)
Written by Simone in response to the murder of civil rights activist Medgar Evers in Mississippi and the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, that killed four young African-American girls, “Mississippi Goddam” is one of the most vital songs to emerge from the Civil Rights era. Though surprisingly upbeat in tempo (Simone said of it, “This is a show tune, but the show hasn’t been written for it yet”), the message of “Mississippi” is brutally clear and addressed racial strife in music without the safety of abstraction and metaphor. Simone often said when introducing the song in concert, “And I mean every word!” Her lyrics and impassioned vocal performance lay out her outrage, and though the curse word in its title immediately limited the recording’s radio airplay, the meaning and musicianship of this work has ensured its fame and endurance.
“Soul Man” (single), Sam & Dave (1967)
Sam Moore and David Prater’s biggest hit was inspired by a riot. After watching coverage of the 1967 Detroit riot, songwriters Isaac Hayes and David Porter were determined to respond with a positive song. Hayes said, “The word ‘soul,’ it was a galvanizing kind of thing for African-Americans, and it had an effect of unity, it was said with a lot of pride.” The result was “Soul Man,” a danceable declaration of black pride. The dynamic vocal duo of Sam & Dave were chosen to record it, with Hayes and Porter producing and backing by Stax Records regulars Booker T. and the M.G.’s and the Mar-Keys’ horns. “Soul Man” is instantly recognizable by its first few notes, guitarist Steve Cropper’s trademark sliding sixths. The engine that powers “Soul Man” is Donald “Duck” Dunn’s infectious, ebullient bass line.
Hair (original Broadway cast recording) (1968)
The self-proclaimed “Tribal Love-Rock Musical” was essentially sex, drugs and rock ‘n’ roll in a Broadway show, with the Vietnam War and racial prejudice thrown in for good measure. Given the cultural division of 1968, depending on which side of the divide one was on, it was, surprisingly or naturally, a hit, running for 1,750 performances. The book and lyrics were written by James Rado and Gerome Ragni, who appeared in the Broadway cast as Claude and Berger, respectively. Galt MacDermot composed the music. Even leaving politics aside, the show received some criticism despite its considerable success, such as the complaint that it didn’t have much of a plot or that it was more of a revue than a musical. However, such criticisms are less pertinent to a cast album, and they ignore the fact that the songs from “Hair” are extremely catchy. The musical’s original Broadway cast recording was enormously successful. During 1969, The 5th Dimension (“Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In”), The Cowsills (“Hair”), Three Dog Night (“Easy to Be Hard”) and Oliver (“Good Morning Starshine”) had major hits with covers of songs from the show. The original LP release omitted a few songs, later restored on the CD reissue.
Speech on the Death of Martin Luther King Jr., Robert F. Kennedy (April 4, 1968)
On the night of April 4, 1968, Sen. Kennedy flew to Indianapolis to speak at a rally in a mostly African-American neighborhood of the city in support of his campaign for the presidency. The news of King’s death in Memphis reached Kennedy when he landed, but much of the assembled crowd only knew that King had been shot. After sharing the devastating news, Kennedy spoke extemporaneously from brief notes. He called for peace in the face of pain and rage and drew upon his experience of the assassination of his brother five years earlier. The recording of the speech captures the tone and emotion of his delivery and the expressions of the crowd — their dismay at the news of King’s death as well as their support for his calls for the country to pull together in the pursuit of both peace and justice. Kennedy himself would be shot and killed two months later. His remarks still resonate today and recall a frightening time of political violence as well as a dream for a better future.
“Sweet Caroline” (single), Neil Diamond (1969)
In 1969, Diamond already had some success as a performer, most notably his single “Kentucky Woman,” but had gained even more fame as a songwriter. However, it was not until the recording of his album Brother Love’s Travelling Salvation Show that he found a new, distinctively personal voice for his compositions. During this session, he recorded “Sweet Caroline,” which was not originally an album track. The song, which combines the sophisticated songwriting craftsmanship that he had cultivated in his early years, with his newly invigorated stage persona, connected with his audience immediately and rose to No. 4 on the pop charts. While Diamond’s version was a huge hit itself, the quality of the songwriting led once again to a variety of cover versions by Frank Sinatra, Elvis Presley and many others. Diamond’s original recording, however, was seen as definitive by the listening audience and identified “Sweet Caroline” as not just a great song, but a Neil Diamond song. The tune has become a favorite at sporting events, particularly in Boston, both in good times and bad, as a restorative anthem that evokes the good old days while affirming that better ones are within reach.
Super Fly (album), Curtis Mayfield (1972)
In a shrewd marketing move, the soundtrack album from the blaxploitation film of the same name was released weeks before the movie, increasing the interest of both the audience and film distributors. However, while supporting the film in those ways, songwriter Mayfield was concerned that the movie glorified drug use and sought to deliberately undercut what he saw as a cocaine commercial. Mayfield wanted to counter the film’s portrayal of drug use with songs that showed the consequences. For example, “Freddie’s Dead” is used in the movie only as an instrumental, but Mayfield not only wrote stinging lyrics for it, he released it as the first single from the soundtrack. Having lived in Chicago’s notorious Cabrini-Green public housing project, Mayfield was all too familiar with the damage done by gangs and pushers. Mayfield said, “It was important for me to counter the visuals — to go in and explain it in a way that the kids would not read it as an infomercial for drugs.” He produced the recording sessions and did all the vocals, but some acknowledgement for the recording’s sound should go to Johnny Pate, credited as an arranger and orchestrator on the album. Pate had worked with Mayfield on some of the Impressions’ hits, including “Keep on Pushing.”
Ola Belle Reed (album), Ola Belle Reed (1973)
Reed was born in 1916 in Grassy Creek, N.C., a town near the Virginia and Tennessee border. The area was rich in traditional music and, by her teens, Reed was an accomplished singer, guitarist and clawhammer banjo player, performing at local gatherings before her family relocated to Rising Sun, Md., when she was 18. After many years of performing with her brother, Alex Campbell, she formed a group with husband Bud and her son David. They recorded Ola Belle Reed for Rounder Records in 1973. The album mixed older pieces, such as “Wayfaring Pilgrim” and “Billy in the Lowground,” that showcased her deep feeling for traditional material, with her own compositions, including “My Epitaph” and “High on a Mountain,” which has since become part of the bluegrass, country and Americana canons in versions by Marty Stuart, Tim O’Brien, Del McCoury and others. Though Reed had been a popular performer around northern Maryland and southern Pennsylvania for many years, this album attracted a much wider audience. By the time of her death in 2002, she was a beloved and influential artist who had mentored many young musicians and was awarded a National Heritage Fellowship by the National Endowment for the Arts in 1986.
“September” (single), Earth, Wind & Fire (1978)
Earth Wind & Fire guitarist Al McKay remembers waking one morning “feeling really good” and picking up his guitar to have the central guitar groove of “September” roll out effortlessly “piece by piece.” When he showed it to Maurice White, the band’s leader and co-writer on the track, White wrote the opening lyric after only a few repetitions. The immediate, buoyant and upbeat mood of this beginning remained imprinted on the track through the final mix, and these attributes explain much of its enduring appeal. White also singles out Thomas “Tom-Tom” Washington’s Latin-tinged horn arrangement with opening fanfare and the nonsense “ba-dee-ya” vocalization as contributing to the “feel good, anthemic qualities” that the band strove for in their songs of the time. The pioneering multitrack techniques employed on this recording sustained the deep groove for which the band was noted. The synthesis of funk, falsetto and forward-driving momentum of just a few chords are powered by the clarity of the individual channels and the punctuation of the horns.
“You Make Me Feel (Mighty Real)” (single), Sylvester (1978)
Disco was at its peak of popularity in late 1978 when Sylvester (aka, Sylvester James Jr., The Fabulous Sylvester) released “You Make Me Feel (Mighty Real).” His urgent falsetto reflected his childhood background in both African-American gospel music and his work as a drag performer in San Francisco. To some, “You Make Me” was evidence that disco was just a mass-produced sound, lacking in depth or personality, though to others, Sylvester’s highly personal and emotional performance gave it gravitas while pushing gender-bending (which Sylvester reveled in) further into the musical mainstream. Patrick Cowley’s production anticipated later developments in electronic dance music. Together, the result was an anthem that has since been successfully covered many times.
She’s So Unusual (album), Cyndi Lauper (1983)
Her debut solo album wasn’t exactly what Lauper had in mind, but it may have been just what she needed. After the dissolution of her band, Blue Angel, Lauper faced bankruptcy and losing her voice, hardships that might have forced a less resilient artist to give up, but she persevered. When she got another chance, she wanted to make the most of it by recording her own songs, though the record company suggested material by others. As the sessions progressed, a mutual respect and trust developed between Lauper and producer Rick Chertoff. As a result, Lauper warmed to some of the proposed cover versions, including “Girls Just Want to Have Fun,” which became the first of her four hit singles from this album. Chertoff encouraged Lauper to work with singer-songwriter Rob Hyman on an additional song for the album. That effort, “Time After Time,” became Lauper’s first No. 1 hit and, in an interesting twist, her most covered song. Lauper’s handling of the covers shows her creativity and the emotional range of her vocal style, which set her apart from other pop stars of the day. She kept the dominant drumbeat of Prince’s “When You Were Mine” but slowed the tempo to give it a different feel. She brightened Jules Shear’s “All Through the Night” with sparkling synthesizer riffs and what Rolling Stone‘s Kurt Loder christened as her “wild and wonderful skyrocket of a voice.” Lauper’s version of The Brains’ “Money Changes Everything” hewed close to the original, and her take on Robert Hazard’s “Girls Just Want to Have Fun” wasn’t a mere cover, it was a transformation of the song into a joyous feminist anthem.
Schoolhouse Rock!: The Box Set (1996)
Schoolhouse Rock is well remembered as a series of short animated programs that aired on ABC starting in 1973. They featured infectiously catchy songs cleverly explaining important educational concepts such as multiplication and grammar. The recordings began as an experiment by advertising executive David McCall to help his son remember his multiplication tables as easily as he remembered the lyrics to his favorite pop songs. McCall then enlisted jazz pianist Bob Dorough’s songwriting and singing talents, and the result was the song “Three Is a Magic Number.” A later partnering with Tom Yohe and George Newall resulted in a series of song and animations crafted on various subjects for Saturday morning broadcasts, including “I’m Just a Bill,” “Conjunction Junction,” “Elbow Room” and “Interjections!” The programs aired for 12 years. They might have fallen off the radar if not for the reissues produced by Kid Rhino Records in the 1990s, followed by a complete box set of the songs in 1996. Parents who grew up watching the cartoons could play the songs for their children in the car, keeping the music alive and relevant for another generation.
The Blueprint (album), Jay-Z (2001)
As Jay-Z’s fame and mainstream popularity grew, he became a tempting target for other hip-hop artists, and his credibility came under threat. He was also facing charges related to assault and weapons possession that could have dramatically affected his life and career. There was a lot riding on the success of his sixth album when it was released Sept. 11, 2001, the same day as the terrorist attacks in New York, Pennsylvania and Washington. Critics recognized it as a signature achievement. Neil Strauss, writing for Rolling Stone, believed “personal and legal problems have provoked Jay-Z to write what may be his most personal, straightforward album, but also his most self-aggrandizing work.” The Blueprint demonstrates Jay-Z’s range, from battle raps throwing shade on his lyrical adversaries such as Nas and Prodigy of Mobb Deep to triumphant anthems about life at the top, to heartfelt examinations of his personal history.
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